Anatomy In the Vertebrate Skull Essay

п»їComparative Vertebrate Anatomy

Lecture Notes - Skeletal Program II (Skull)

The Vertebrate Head consists of: В

1 - neurocranium (also called endocranium or principal braincase) В 2 -- dermatocranium (membrane bones)

three or more - splanchnocranium (or pasional skeleton)


you - defends the brain

2 - starts as the fibrous connective tissue cartilage that is to some extent or totally replaced simply by bone (except in cartilaginous fishes) В

Cartilaginous stage:

neurocranium starts as couple of parachordal & prechordal cartilages below the mind parachordal cartilages expand & join; combined with the notochord from the basal menu prechordal cartilages expand & join to create an ethmoid plate The fibrous connective tissue cartilage also appears in the

olfactory capsule (partially surrounding the olfactory epithelium) otic supplement (surrounds interior ear & also develops into sclera of the eyeball)

Completion of ground, walls, & roof:

Ethmoid plate - fuses with olfactory tablets

Basal dish - combines with otic capsules

Additional development of cartilaginous neurocranium = development of cartilaginous walls (sides of braincase) &, in cartilaginous these people own in, a cartilaginous roof in the brain Cartilaginous fishes -- retain a cartilaginous neurocranium (or chondrocranium) throughout life

Bony these people own in, lungfishes, & most ganoids - maintain highly cartilaginous neurocranium that is certainly covered by membrane layer bone Cyclostomes - the several cartilaginous aspects of the wanting neurocranium stay in adults because more or less 3rd party cartilages

Source: Other bony vertebrates -- embryonic cartilaginous neurocranium is largely replaced by simply replacement cuboid (the means of endochondral ossification occurs practically simultaneously at several ossification centers) В

Neurocranial ossification centers: В

1 - occipital centers

cartilage around the foramen magnum might be replaced by as many as 4 bones: basioccipital

exoccipital (2)


Mammals - all 4...


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