Fodder Dissertation


Nepal is usually predominantly an agricultural country, people based upon agriculture with raising household livestock. These types of livestock can not be maintained on the fodder made on cultivable land alone. In Nepal, agricultural seeds are almost never grown especially for fodder production except in some small areas. Because of raising pressure of human population and in addition because of bigger income by cereal and cash seeds than from forage crops, more culture area cannot be set apart for fodder creation. In most of the areas, cereal straw and dry lawn which are very poor in healthy proteins and have to be supplemented with green fodder of high nutritive value, amount to the principal fodder for livestocks. Fodder shrubs/trees as creature feed, especially during winter and dry period have been the important traditional way to obtain livestock nourish especially, in the centre and Northern Belt of Nepal. Planting of fodder trees and shrubs are an ecological appear practices, which will contributes about soil preservation and keeping agricultural durability. Fodder bushes play an important role in Nepalese overall economy. More than 136 different species of trees/shrubs have already been used as a source of animals feed in Nepal. Trees/shrubs are the main source of fodder and bedsheets material intended for livestock, fuel-wood for energy needs and, timber for house building. Traditionally, leaves of hitch tree and shrub has become offered to cows, buffalo, and goats particularly in stall-fed conditions. For example , in high North Belt, once, the pasturelands are covered with snow for most in the winter season (5-6 months of any year) and a kept forage shortage, the plants of trees/shrubs help the requirements of nourish for animals. Fodders and forages are the ultimate method to obtain feed intended for herbivorous animals. BERSEEM is referred to as king of fodder and LUCERN as queen of fodder. And so they are explained in information below when other key fodders and forages happen to be described basically.



Medical Name: Trifolium alexandrium

Berseem is a nutritive, succulent, palatable and intestinal winter is fodder which is called king of the fodders, especially in areas where irrigation water is available in plenty. Berseem originated in Egypt and at present it is becoming cultivated in I in Egypt, Israel, Syria, Persia, Cyprus, Italia, South Africa, South America, Australia, Pakistan and many other Europe. In I 1904, it is seeds were imported via Egypt to India and presently it truly is cultivated in Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and a few parts of Bihar, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. Climate

Berseem crop is extremely sensitive towards the climatic conditions. It will not grow well when you will discover fluctuations in the climatic heat or in rainfall. An area with gross annual rainfall of 300 centimeter or fewer rains and assured water sources, with slight fluctuations in temperature inside the range of 15В°C is quite suitable for berseem cultivation. Soil

Berseem can increase on all kinds of soils apart from very lumination sandy soil. The ground should be very well drained, abundant with phosphorus, calcium supplements and potash. It does not increase well about acid soil but expand successfully in alkaline soils having good water holding onto capacity. The land ought to be well leveled and consistent. The plant does not endure water working. It successfully grows in soil with pH 7 to 8. Land Preparing

Plough the land three or four times with desi plough followed by 1 soil inversion ploughing. 1 or 2 plankings should be done to break every one of the soil clods. Remove the turf, stubbles particularly doob turf root, because they cause problems later on and level the land uniformly. Small size beds (1/10 or 1/20 of an acre) are finally prepared with ridges ahead of sowing simple irrigation. In light soils, puddling is necessary in order to avoid excessive loss in water. Seeding Requirements

Method and time of sowing along with seeds treatment and seed; price are important elements which...

References: Department of Livestock Companies (1996). Twelve-monthly Progress Survey. Department of Livestock Providers, Pasture and Animal Nourishment Development Section.

HMG/ADB/FINNIDA (1988). Master Plan for the Forestry Sector Nepal, Kathmandu.

Burns, D. L. (1987). Yaks and Solide, Pastoralism in the Himalayan Countries of Nepal and Bhutan and Strategies for Sustained Creation, University of Montana USA.

National Reaearch Council: Suggested Nutrients Allocation for Mounts. Washington, M. C., Nationwide Academy of Science, 78.

Pariyar, M., Banstola, B. R. and Sedhain, G. K. (1996). Fodder and Pasture Research and Development in Nepal. A Review and Synthesis of Its Program for Rehabilitating Degraded Terrain.

Rajbhandary, H. B. and Shah S. G. (1981). Trends and Projections of Livestock Creation in The Hills of Nepal. Presented at Seminar in Nepal is actually Experience in Hill Gardening Development, organised on 30 March - 3 April, 1981, MOA / ADC, Kathmandu.

Stainton, J. N. (1973). В Forests of Nepal. John Murray Press Greater london.

Class remarks of ANU111 by Doctor N. R. Devkota


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