Meaning and Dimensions of
The nature of tradition
The nature of culture
Values and folkways
Comparing ethnic values
Sub-cultures and cultural modify
Just how culture influences management – see webpage
How nationalities view one another
Chapter Describe (2)
Cultural measurements – how people check out life
Region clusters – countries with similar
The Nature of Tradition
Tradition is the bought knowledge that
people use to understand experience and
generate interpersonal behavior
Social knowledge varieties values,
makes attitudes, and influences
Not everyone in a lifestyle has specifically
the same beliefs.
The Nature of Lifestyle (2)
Characteristics of culture consist of:
See page 94 for meanings.
Values and Folkways
Culture units norms (expectations) for
Values are cultural morals about correct and
wrong. Values include moral value and
in many cases are included in legislation.
Folkways will be customary means of behaving,
with little or no moral significance.
Examples: wedding customs, what to put on
to a burial
Table 4-1: Cultural Ideals
1 . Flexibility
2 . Freedom
4. Equal rights
1 ) Belonging
installment payments on your Group
a harmonious relationship
7. Top quality
1 . Countries
Friends and family
installment payments on your Family
a harmonious relationship
your five. Authority
almost 8. Patience
being unfaithful. Indirectness
Sub-cultures and Ethnic
Groups within a culture may form a
sub-culture that varies in some ways
from the national culture.
Ethnicities can change steadily over
People who have worked outside their particular
own region or have friends from other
nationalities may grab some thinking or
manners from the various other culture.
Just how Cultures Watch Each Other
Stereotyping: assumes that all persons
within 1 culture or group respond,
believe, feel, and work the same.
Ethnocentrism: occurs when people from
one particular culture believe that theirs will be the
only accurate norms, principles, and morals.
Self-reference requirements: the presumption
that people in another culture will certainly
behave just like people within your culture
Electrical power distance: The extent that less effective
members of institutions and organizations accept
that electric power is given away unequally
Substantial power range countries: persons may blindly obey
the orders with their superiors and are also less likely to
question expert. Companies often use centralized
decision-making and tall business structures (many
levels of management)
Low electricity distance countries: flatter and decentralized
corporation structures, more compact ratio of supervisors.
Staff are more likely to query their companies.
Participative supervision may be used.
Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions
Individualism and Collectivism
Individualism: Tendency of men and women to look after
themselves and their instant family simply
Countries high in individualism: High individual
initiative. Promotions are based on achievements.
Salaries are based on market value.
Collectivism: Tendency of individuals to belong to groups
or perhaps collectives and look after one another in
exchange for loyalty
Countries high in collectivism: Low specific
initiative. Wages and promotions may be centered
on eldership elders
Hofstede's Social Dimensions
Uncertainty avoidance: Extent to which people experience
threatened by ambiguous conditions and have
produced beliefs and institutions that...