Hodgetts4 S08 Essay

Meaning and Dimensions of


Part 4

Chapter Outline

The nature of tradition

 The nature of culture

 Values and folkways

 Comparing ethnic values

 Sub-cultures and cultural modify

 Just how culture influences management – see webpage


 How nationalities view one another

Chapter Describe (2)

Cultural measurements – how people check out life

 Hofstede's sizes

Region clusters – countries with similar

ethnic dimensions

 Trompenaar's sizes

The Nature of Tradition

Tradition is the bought knowledge that

people use to understand experience and

generate interpersonal behavior

Social knowledge varieties values,

makes attitudes, and influences


Not everyone in a lifestyle has specifically

the same beliefs.

The Nature of Lifestyle (2)

Characteristics of culture consist of:







See page 94 for meanings.

Values and Folkways

Culture units norms (expectations) for


Values are cultural morals about correct and

wrong. Values include moral value and

in many cases are included in legislation.

Folkways will be customary means of behaving,

with little or no moral significance.

Examples: wedding customs, what to put on

to a burial

Table 4-1: Cultural Ideals



1 . Flexibility

2 . Freedom

3. Self-sufficiency

4. Equal rights

5. Individuality

6. Competition

7. Productivity

8. Time

9. Directness

10. Openness


1 ) Belonging

installment payments on your Group

a harmonious relationship

3. Collectivenes


four. Age/seniority

5. Group


6. Cooperation

7. Top quality

8. Tolerance

9. Indirectness

10. Go-between


1 . Countries

Friends and family


installment payments on your Family

a harmonious relationship

3. Parental


four. Age

your five. Authority

6. Compromise

six. Devotion

almost 8. Patience

being unfaithful. Indirectness

15. Hospitality

Sub-cultures and Ethnic


Groups within a culture may form a

sub-culture that varies in some ways

from the national culture.

Ethnicities can change steadily over


People who have worked outside their particular

own region or have friends from other

nationalities may grab some thinking or

manners from the various other culture.

Just how Cultures Watch Each Other

Stereotyping: assumes that all persons

within 1 culture or group respond,

believe, feel, and work the same.

Ethnocentrism: occurs when people from

one particular culture believe that theirs will be the

only accurate norms, principles, and morals.

Self-reference requirements: the presumption

that people in another culture will certainly

behave just like people within your culture

Hofstede's Cultural


Power Range

Electrical power distance: The extent that less effective

members of institutions and organizations accept

that electric power is given away unequally

Substantial power range countries: persons may blindly obey

the orders with their superiors and are also less likely to

question expert. Companies often use centralized

decision-making and tall business structures (many

levels of management)

Low electricity distance countries: flatter and decentralized

corporation structures, more compact ratio of supervisors.

Staff are more likely to query their companies.

Participative supervision may be used.

Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions

Individualism and Collectivism

Individualism: Tendency of men and women to look after

themselves and their instant family simply

 Countries high in individualism: High individual

initiative. Promotions are based on achievements.

Salaries are based on market value.

Collectivism: Tendency of individuals to belong to groups

or perhaps collectives and look after one another in

exchange for loyalty

 Countries high in collectivism: Low specific

initiative. Wages and promotions may be centered

on eldership elders

Hofstede's Social Dimensions

Doubt Avoidance

Uncertainty avoidance: Extent to which people experience

threatened by ambiguous conditions and have

produced beliefs and institutions that...


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