Untitled document2 Essay

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1 .  ​

The ​

First Atlantic system​

refersВ toВ theВ 16thВ­centuryВ periodВ inВ whichВ Portuguese ​ merchantsВ

dominated the West African ​

slave trade​

—supplying Spanish and Portuguese ​

New World​

​

ColoniesВ

with imported African labor. The ​

Second Atlantic System​

characterizesВ theВ 17thВ andВ 18thВ centuries, В

whenВ British, В Dutch, В andВ FrenchВ merchantsВ replacedВ theВ PortugueseВ asВ theВ majorВ slaveВ tradersВ inВ theВ Atlantic. AfricanВ communitiesВ enslavedВ membersВ ofВ neighboringВ orВ enemyВ ethnicВ groups. В TheyВ thenВ soldВ theseВ slavesВ toВ EuropeanВ traders. EuropeanВ goodsВ wereВ thenВ usedВ toВ tradeВ withВ AfricansВ forВ slavesВ andВ exportedВ toВ theВ AmericanВ colonies, В whereВ theВ cycleВ ofВ theВ tradeВ startedВ again. ​ TheВ

SecondВ AtlanticВ systemВ wasВ theВ tradeВ ofВ enslavedВ AfricansВ byВ mostlyВ British, В Portuguese, В FrenchВ andВ DutchВ traders. В TheВ mainВ destinationsВ ofВ thisВ phaseВ wereВ theВ CaribbeanВ coloniesВ andВ Brazil, В asВ EuropeanВ nationsВ builtВ upВ economicallyВ slaveВ­dependentВ coloniesВ inВ theВ NewВ World. TheВ AtlanticВ slaveВ tradeВ orВ transВ­atlanticВ slaveВ tradeВ tookВ placeВ acrossВ theВ AtlanticВ oceanВ fromВ theВ 16thВ throughВ toВ theВ 19thВ centuries. В

AtlanticВ TriangularВ TradeВ

The best­known triangular trading system is the transatlantic slave trade,  that operated from the late 16th to early 19th centuries,  carrying slaves,  cash crops,  and manufactured goods between West Africa,  Caribbean or American colonies and the European colonial powers,  with the northern colonies of British North America,  especially ​

New England​

, В sometimesВ takingВ overВ theВ roleВ ofВ

The european union. В

3. ThisВ textВ presentsВ aВ worldВ systemВ analysisВ ofВ theВ emergenceВ ofВ aВ newВ worldВ structureВ

and world wealth gap in the nineteenth that emphasises the importance of global­wide developments to explain the growth of particular economies.  R.  B.  Marks argues against the rise­of­the­west views that European cultures were more superior or that its market economy was more rational,  to emphasise factors including shifts is military power,  state agency in industrial growth,  role of opium trade in limiting early recessions,  the unequal trade of new centre­periphery structure in the world system,  and exploitation in the new global class structure that links people at global level in relation to capital super­elites.  This structure can be represented as a global triangular class structure that is being shaped and re­shaped today.  The centre­periphery structure of the world system changes from 1800 to 1900 through 2000 to toda​

con. В В

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6. ​

The ​

End of History and the Last Man ​

is a 1992 book by ​

Francis Fukuyama​

, В

expanding on his 1989 essay " The End of History? ",  published in the international affairs journal ​

The National Interest​

. В InВ theВ book, В FukuyamaВ arguesВ thatВ theВ adventВ of ​ WesternВ

liberal democracy​

may signal the endpoint of humanity's ​

sociocultural evolution​

andВ theВ

finalВ formВ ofВ humanВ government. В

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" What we may be witnessing is not just the end of the ​ Cold War​

, В orВ theВ passingВ ofВ aВ

particularВ periodВ ofВ postВ­warВ history, В butВ theВ endВ ofВ historyВ asВ such: В thatВ is, В theВ endВ pointВ ofВ mankind'sВ ideologicalВ evolutionВ andВ theВ universalizationВ ofВ Western ​ liberalВ democracyВ

[1]В

as the final form of human government. " ​

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Fukuyama's position contradicts that of ​

Karl Marx​

, В whoВ imaginedВ thatВ antagonisticВ

history would end with ​

communism​

displacing ​

capitalism​

.[2]​

​ FukuyamaВ himselfВ identifiesВ

on some level with Marx,  but identifies most strongly with the German philosopher Hegel​

,  by way of ​

Alexandre Kojève​

.  Kojève argued that the progress of history must lead [3]​

towardВ theВ establishmentВ ofВ aВ " universalВ andВ homogenous" В state, ​ В mostВ likelyВ

incorporatingВ elementsВ ofВ liberalВ orВ socialВ democracyНѕВ butВ Kojeve'sВ emphasisВ onВ theВ necessarilyВ " postВ­political" В characterВ ofВ suchВ aВ stateВ (andВ itsВ citizens)В makesВ suchВ [4]В...

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